Leaders of Iran

Thursday, December 23, 2004

Netiran>Who's Who>Who's Update>Detail>Mr. Bijan Namdar Zanganeh

Netiran>Who's Who>Who's Update>Detail>Mr. Bijan Namdar Zanganeh: "Mr. Namdar Zanganeh, Bijan

Minister of Oil

Netiran, Mar. 1st, 2004,

Date of Birth:
Place of Birth:
Kermanshah, Kermanshah
M.S., Civil Engineering

Other Positions:
-Academic member of Khajeh Nasireddin Tousi University, 1977

- Construction Jihad, 1979-1980

- Deputy for Cultural Affairs of the Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance, 1980-1983

- Minister of Energy: 1988-1997

- Member of the Economic Council, minister representing the president, 1989-till present

- Member of the general assembly of oil, gas and petrochemical companies, 1989-till present

- Member of the Market Regulating Committee, representing the cabinet ministers, 1988 till present

- Member of the Expediency Council, by a decree of the Supreme Leader in 1996

Major Initiatives in Executive Posts:

- Actively involved in creation of the Construction Jihad

- Active participation in deepening the cultural revolution at university

- Active participation in drawing up and formulating plans in accordance with the needs and requirements of the Islamic Republic of Iran while in the post of Deputy for Cultural Affairs of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance

- Efforts to establish a center for collection and preservation of documents relating to the Islamic revolution of Iran and publishing the great and massive collection of speeches and guidelines of the late Imam Khomeini, Sahifeh Noor

- Offering valuable services to the population of deprived and remote villages and outstanding contribution to drawing up the organizational charter, executive procedure, educational and training programs of the Construction Jihad and promoting and publicizing this popular establishment and its goals and services among the public and introducing its constructive role in attainment of the economic independence and improvement of livelihood of the rural population, 1983-1988 as the Minister of Construction Jihad

- Massive efforts for reconstruction and rehabilitation of country’s water and electricity industry in the aftermath of the 1980-1988 Iraqi-imposed war and the damages caused to the industry in the Iraqi attacks as well as total revival of the industry, 1988-1997, while serving in the post of Minister of Energy

Scientific, Research and Education Record:

- Member of the academic staff of Khajeh Nasireddin Tousi University, 1977 till present

- Member of the Board of Trustees of Water and Electricity University, 1991, till present

- Member of the academic board of Razi Medical University, 1991 till present

- President of the Board of Trustees of north western universities (including universities in the cities of Orumiyeh, Ardebil and Zanjan), 1977 till present

- Launching the Center for Collection and Preservation and Publication of cultural revolution documents and compiling and publishing the speeches and guidelines of the late Imam Khomeini, Sahifeh Noor

Political and Religious Record:

Active participation in political and religious movements of university students and continuous struggle against the regime of the Shah, leading to the victory of the Islamic revolution in 1979

Career Highlights: During his university studies, Zangeneh played an active and continuous role in religious and political activities. While fighting against the Shah's anti-Islamic regime, he did not agree at all with leftist elements. He regarded success in combat against the past decadent regime in dependence on the existence of religious figures. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, Zanganeh was appointed as a faculty member, and at the same time played an active role in the great movement of the Construction Jihad. While teaching in the university, he continued his executive and cultural endeavors as well as his cooperation with the Construction Jihad.
While in the Ministry of Islamic Guidance, he made efforts to establish a center for collection, preservation and publication of written, audio, visual documents concerning the Islamic revolution. One of the steps taken by this center was publication of a great work of the Imam' statements and guidance entitled "Sahifeh Nour" (page of light).
He held this post until November 1982, then, at the invitation of the Construction Jihad officials and by order of the Prime Minister, he was appointed a member of the Central Council of this institution.
Zanganeh received a vote of confidence from the Majlis as the first Minister of Construction Jihad on Feb. 24, 1983, and retained this portfolio until July 21, 1989. Zanganeh is a faculty member of the Technological University. He got married in 1979 and has two children."

President Khatami's Brother Quits IIPF Head: Press

President Khatami's Brother Quits IIPF Head: Press: "President Khatami's Brother Quits IIPF Head: Press
Head of the biggest Iranian pro- reform caucus Mohammad Reza Khatami has resigned his post, a press report said Tuesday.

The government-run newspaper Iran quoted a reformist lawmaker Reza Yousefian as saying that Reza Khatami, younger brother of President Mohammad Khatami, has ceased to head the Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), which holds the majority in the reformist-majority parliament (Majlis).

Yousefian did not give the reasons of resignation, saying the IIPF was to hold a session on Monday to appoint a new head, but it was adjourned indefinitely.

He said that Mohsen Mirdamadi, head of a parliamentary commission, and Mohammad Reza Naimipour are candidates for the post. It seems that Naimipour will be elected as the head, he added.

Reza Khatami was the top vote-getter in last year's parliamentary polls.

As the June presidential elections looms, IIPF has heightened pressure recently on the incumbent president for a second mandate by picking him as the sole candidate for the polls."

BBC News | Ahmad Tavakkoli (conservative)

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Ahmad Tavakkoli (conservative): Former labour minister and managing director of the no-longer published daily Farda. Declared aims: Combating "political apartheid", combating economic and political privileges, creating changes in the administration of the country "on the basis of reason and justice", rebuilding public support by making the state managerial system effective, changing poorly performing state managers and using competent officials."

BBC News | Ali Shamkhani (conservative)

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Ali Shamkhani (conservative): Defence minister. Campaign slogan: bringing about security and reforms in the framework of political calm, national solidarity and social well-being. "

BBC News | Shahabeddin Sadr (conservative)

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Shahabeddin Sadr (conservative): Head of the Administrative Medical Association and a former member of parliament. Campaign slogan: towards Islamic Iran's new civilisation. Declared aims: informed participation by everyone in the running of the country; fundamental, true and Islamic reforms; lasting, comprehensive and balanced political, economic, social and cultural development."

BBC News | Mansur Razavi (conservative)

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Mansur Razavi (conservative): Tehran city councillor and former head of Employment Affairs Organisation. Campaign slogan: formation of a government of national consensus. Declared aims: building an Iran worthy of Iranians and forming a government of national consensus with decisive and effective officials, combating poverty, expanding political and social freedoms, bringing about a new state managerial system and strengthening regional administrations. "

BBC News | Mahmud Kashani (conservative): University lecturer and jurist

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Mahmud Kashani (conservative): University lecturer and jurist. Declared aims: combating economic problems, unemployment, inflation and poverty; "seriously and decisively combating social problems which have resulted from statesmen's incorrect policies in recent years"; respecting the rights of the people and establishing the rule of law; changing the country's current "dispiriting course"."

BBC News | Abdollah Jasbi (conservative)

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Abdollah Jasbi (conservative): Head of Islamic Azad University, a member of the Islamic Coalition Association, which is associated with the Tehran bazaar. Campaign slogan: a happy Iran for a thriving tomorrow with knowledge and ability. "

BBC News | Hassan Ghaffourifard (conservative)

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Hassan Ghaffourifard (conservative): Member of Islamic Association of Engineers and a former member of parliament. Declared aims: 'raising the country's level of learning in order to join the world's scientific convoy', tackling various problems such as marriage, education, employment and sports for the young. "

BBC News | Ali Fallahian (conservative)

BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Guide: How Iran votes: "Ali Fallahian (conservative): Intelligence minister under former President Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani. Campaign slogan: moving Towards Post-Industrial Development. Declared aims: strengthening the executive's management by reforming regulations and reducing the number of laws; controlling inflation; reducing taxes. "

New Page 1

New Page 1: "Biography of Ayatollah Shahrudi

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Ayatollah Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, born in August 1948, in Najaf, Iraq, is the son of the late Ayatollah Seyed Ali Hosseini Sharoudi, the progeny of one of the well-known families of the city of Shahroud, in the north of Iran, known as "Sadat Hosseini" (the descendents of the Prophet). The family to which he was born was that of religious scholars.

His mother is the daughter of the grand Ayatollah Haj Seyed Ali Madadi Mousavi Ghayeni, a religious scholar from Khorasan province. For many years, he was an instructor of theology, and led religious congregations at the shrine of Imam Reza, in the city of Mashad.

The father of Ayatollah Hashemi Shahroudi was a theologian free from prejudice, at Najaf School of Theology, he was the first instructor of the said school who compiled the lectures of the then highest Islamic authority, Ayatollah Khoei, in the Islamic jurisprudence and methodology.

Ayatollah Shahroudi attended Alavi School, a special school for the Iranian nationals living in Najaf, where he completed elementry education.he immediately attended the school of theology, and successfully completed the elementary levels, in the shortest possible time, thanks to his genius, scholastic aptitude and talent for learning. He then atttended more advanced classes of the then well known jurisprudence.

For several years, he attended the advanced course of Islamic jurisprudence and methodology, thought by His Eminence the martyred grand Ayatollah Seyed Mohammad Bagher Sadr, His Eminence grand Ayatollah Imam Khomeini and His Eminence Ayatollah Khoei.

A remarkable characteristic of Ayatollah Shahroudi is his modern approach to jurisprudential discourses, which is inspired by the innovative ideas of Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Sadr, and his ability to present those issues in such a manner that could address the contemporary requirements of the Islamic government.

As an outstanding student of the advance courses of theology, he was always favoured by his professors, Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah sadr. Imam Khomeini had instructed the officials of Najaf School of Theology who where responsible for payment of stipends, to pay special attention to the young Shahroudi, and provide him with sufficient financial means. Ayatollah Sadr who was extremely conservative in recognizing the qualification of the graduates of the school of theology as independent jurists (mojtahed), granted such certification (known as ejtihad) to Ayatollah Shahroudi. As a young theologian in his early thirties, he was admired by his professor, Ayatollah Sadr, with such phrases as:

"he is jurist with a promising future who can be the source of inspiration for the muslims. May God the Almighty bless him and protect his as a reserve for the Islamic faith."

Beore the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, and at the climax of the struggles of the Iranian people against the despotic rule of the Shah, under the leadership of Imam Khomeini, the Bathist regime of Iraq stormed Najaf School of Theology in 1974, and arrested a number of the Iranian religious scholars, including the students of Ayatollah sadr.

Ayatollah Shahroudi was among those who were arrested and put to jail, where he was tortured. After some while, he was released as a result of the mediation of the religious scholars and authorities. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, and following the demonstrations staged by the Iraqi people and the revolt of the people of Najaf, the Iraqi regime once again sought ot prersecute Ayatollah Shahroudi. However, this time the Iraqi agents failed to arrest him, because he had already left for his homeland, the Islamic Iran.

Upon returning to Iran, he was assigned by Imam Khomeini to act as a liaison between Imam and the freedom fighters outside Iran, in particular Ayatollah Sadr and Najaf School of Theology. As a result of his ceaseless efforts, the committed forces and sympathizers of the Islamic Revolution were mobilized. Upon instructions from His Eminence Ayatollah Khamenei, who was then assigned by Imam Khomeini in charge of Islamic movements, Ayatollah Shahroudi organized and led the Society of Militant Iraqi Clergies and the Iraq's Supreme Islamic Assembly.

In a meeting of the Supreme Assembly with Imam Khomeimi. His Eminence asked Ayatollah Shahroudi to pursue the responsibility of teaching at Aum School of Theology as his highest priority, and to conduct studies on the Islamic jurisprudence, particularly the studies aimed at revitalization of the discourse concerning the concept of government, based on proper reasoning and inference of the Shiite Jurisprudence.

In response to the said advice, Ayatollah Shahroudi began a teaching career (since March 21 1979, the date of his arrival in Iran), in the city of Qom, where he taught advanced courses of Islamic Jurisprudence and methodology.

Some of the books authored by Ayatollah Shahroudi, that were used as textbooks in his classes of Islamic jurisprudence and methodology are:

Islamic Criminal Law (Discretionary)

The Book of Khoms(religious tax), in two volumes.

Hire, Sale, Dormant Partnership, Co-partnership, Agricultural and Cultivation Partnership etc

The lectures of Ayatollah Shahroudi in the advanced course of Islamic methodology and those of Ayatollah Sadr, compiled by Ayatollah Shahroudi, have been published in seven volumes under the title "Discourses in Islamic Methodology".

In line with his modern approach to the Islamic Jurisprudence, which is compatible with the contemporary requirements of the muslim societies, Ayatollah Shahroudi has organized the following cultural endeavours:

Congress of the Impact of Time & Geography on the Thoughts of Imam Khomeini.

1st Congress of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Jurisprudence.

Both congresses were vastly welcomed by the scholars from both the schools of theology and universities.

A series of essays of Ayatollah Shahroudi on Such contemporary topics as civil liability, devaluation of money, compensation, personal knowledge of the judge, clandestine revolt against legitimate government, corruption, retaliation etc. have been published in the quarterly :Jurisprudence of Prophet's Progeny".

In the action assigning Ayatollah Shahroudi with the task of establishing the Institute of Encyclopedia of Islamic Juisprudence, His Eminence Ayatollah Khamenei, the Leader has addressed Ayatollah Shahroudi as follows.

In View of your qualifications as an outstanding academic figure with a high standing in Islamic jurisprudence and related disciplines, I assign you with the task of establishing the Institute of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Jurisprudence.

Along with his academic career, Ayatollah Shahroudi has also undertaken crucial responsibilities, which have been properly fulfilled by His Eminence. some of his positions both before and after taking office as head of the judiciary are:

Jurist member of th Counciul of Guardians.

Member of Assembly of Experts.

Member of Supreme Management Council of Qum School of Theology.

Vice-Chairman of Association of Instructors of Qum School of Theology.

The most important responsibility undertaken by Ayatollah Shahroudi during the recent years is establishment of the Institute of the Encyclopedia of the Islamic Jurisprudence, based on the teachings of the Prophet's progeny, which is presided by him, by the charter of the Leader, His Eminence Ayatollah Khamenei.

Thanks to the efforts of Ayatollah Hashemi Shahroudi, this institute has managed to publish numerous volumes of valuable works on the Islamic jurisprudence and theology.

Along with publication of books, this institute publishes two quarterlies: "Jurisprudence of the Prophet's Progeny" in Persian and "Al-Menhaj" in Arabic, the latter being published by the institute's branch in Lebanon.

The areas covered by this quarterlies include studies on the latest Shiite viewpoints of jurisprudence addressing the contemporary issues.

While serving at the Supreme Management Council of Qum School of Theology and the Association of Instructors of Qum School of Theology, His Eminence has presented new plans towards enhancing the efficiency of the said school. He has also put forth useful proposals towards enhancing the efficiency of the Council of Guardians. After taking office as Head of the Judiciary, he launched the project known as "judicial development". The society and the judicial system have greatly benefited from the endeavours of Ayatololah Shahroudi in the capacity of the Head of the judiciary. The idea of "judicial development", as viewed by Ayatollah Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, is the corner stone for reformation of the judicial system towards achieving a developed judicial system based on the teachings and doctrines of Islam. "

BBC NEWS | Middle East | Profile: Ayatollah Shahrudi

BBC NEWS | Middle East | Profile: Ayatollah Shahrudi: "Profile: Ayatollah Shahrudi

Ayatollah Shahrudi: Head of the judiciary
Ayatollah Shahrudi has been head of Iran's judiciary since 1999. He is seen as close to both the president and the Supreme Leader.
In December 1999, he pledged to cooperate with President Khatami in reforming the judiciary.

About 40 people, including judges, were arrested in December 2000 in a crackdown on bribery and corruption in the country's courts. Ayatollah Shahrudi has also spearheaded a fight against economic crime.

When a row broke out in December 2001 between the conservative judiciary and the reform-dominated parliament over the jailing of an MP, he was asked by the government to intervene.

In a move seen as an olive branch to reformers, he suggested that the heads of the judiciary, legislature and executive should meet to resolve the issue.

However, tensions between the judiciary and other branches of power in Iran have persisted.

In December 2002, the judiciary spokesman resigned in protest at its involvement in politics.

In April 2003, journalists complained in an open letter to Ayatollah Shahrudi that the judiciary was infringing their constitutional rights.

Later that month, he approved the promotion of a hardline judge, said to be behind newspaper closures."