Leaders of Iran

Wednesday, December 22, 2004

Biography of Ayatollah Shahrudi

New Page 1: "Biography of Ayatollah Shahrudi

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Ayatollah Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, born in August 1948, in Najaf, Iraq, is the son of the late Ayatollah Seyed Ali Hosseini Sharoudi, the progeny of one of the well-known families of the city of Shahroud, in the north of Iran, known as "Sadat Hosseini" (the descendents of the Prophet). The family to which he was born was that of religious scholars.

His mother is the daughter of the grand Ayatollah Haj Seyed Ali Madadi Mousavi Ghayeni, a religious scholar from Khorasan province. For many years, he was an instructor of theology, and led religious congregations at the shrine of Imam Reza, in the city of Mashad.

The father of Ayatollah Hashemi Shahroudi was a theologian free from prejudice, at Najaf School of Theology, he was the first instructor of the said school who compiled the lectures of the then highest Islamic authority, Ayatollah Khoei, in the Islamic jurisprudence and methodology.

Ayatollah Shahroudi attended Alavi School, a special school for the Iranian nationals living in Najaf, where he completed elementry education.he immediately attended the school of theology, and successfully completed the elementary levels, in the shortest possible time,

For several years, he attended the advanced course of Islamic jurisprudence and methodology, thought by His Eminence the martyred grand Ayatollah Seyed Mohammad Bagher Sadr, His Eminence grand Ayatollah Imam Khomeini and His Eminence Ayatollah Khoei.

A remarkable characteristic of Ayatollah Shahroudi is his modern approach to jurisprudential discourses, which is inspired by the innovative ideas of Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Sadr, and his ability to present those issues in such a manner that could address the contemporary requirements of the Islamic government.

As an outstanding student of the advance courses of theology, he was always favoured by his professors, Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah sadr. Imam Khomeini had instructed the officials of Najaf School of Theology who where responsible for payment of stipends, to pay special attention to the young Shahroudi, and provide him with sufficient financial means. Ayatollah Sadr who was extremely conservative in recognizing the qualification of the graduates of the school of theology as independent jurists (mojtahed), granted such certification (known as ejtihad) to Ayatollah Shahroudi. As a young theologian in his early thirties, he was admired by his professor, Ayatollah Sadr, with such phrases as:

"he is jurist with a promising future who can be the source of inspiration for the muslims. May God the Almighty bless him and protect his as a reserve for the Islamic faith."

Beore the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, and at the climax of the struggles of the Iranian people against the despotic rule of the Shah, under the leadership of Imam Khomeini, the Bathist regime of Iraq stormed Najaf School of Theology in 1974, and arrested a number of the Iranian religious scholars, including the students of Ayatollah sadr.

Ayatollah Shahroudi was among those who were arrested and put to jail, where he was tortured. After some while, he was released as a result of the mediation of the religious scholars and authorities. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, and following the demonstrations staged by the Iraqi people and the revolt of the people of Najaf, the Iraqi regime once again sought ot prersecute Ayatollah Shahroudi. However, this time the Iraqi agents failed to arrest him, because he had already left for his homeland, the Islamic Iran.

Upon returning to Iran, he was assigned by Imam Khomeini to act as a liaison between Imam and the freedom fighters outside Iran, in particular Ayatollah Sadr and Najaf School of Theology. As a result of his ceaseless efforts, the committed forces and sympathizers of the Islamic Revolution were mobilized. Upon instructions from His Eminence Ayatollah Khamenei, who was then assigned by Imam Khomeini in charge of Islamic movements, Ayatollah Shahroudi organized and led the Society of Militant Iraqi Clergies and the Iraq's Supreme Islamic Assembly.


In a meeting of the Supreme Assembly with Imam Khomeimi. His Eminence asked Ayatollah Shahroudi to pursue the responsibility of teaching at Aum School of Theology as his highest priority, and to conduct studies on the Islamic jurisprudence, particularly the studies aimed at revitalization of the discourse concerning the concept of government, based on proper reasoning and inference of the Shiite Jurisprudence.

In response to the said advice, Ayatollah Shahroudi began a teaching career (since March 21 1979, the date of his arrival in Iran), in the city of Qom, where he taught advanced courses of Islamic Jurisprudence and methodology.

Some of the books authored by Ayatollah Shahroudi, that were used as textbooks in his classes of Islamic jurisprudence and methodology are:

Islamic Criminal Law (Discretionary)

The Book of Khoms(religious tax), in two volumes.

Hire, Sale, Dormant Partnership, Co-partnership, Agricultural and Cultivation Partnership etc

The lectures of Ayatollah Shahroudi in the advanced course of Islamic methodology and those of Ayatollah Sadr, compiled by Ayatollah Shahroudi, have been published in seven volumes under the title "Discourses in Islamic Methodology".

In line with his modern approach to the Islamic Jurisprudence, which is compatible with the contemporary requirements of the muslim societies, Ayatollah Shahroudi has organized the following cultural endeavours:

Congress of the Impact of Time & Geography on the Thoughts of Imam Khomeini.

1st Congress of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Jurisprudence.

Both congresses were vastly welcomed by the scholars from both the schools of theology and universities.

A series of essays of Ayatollah Shahroudi on Such contemporary topics as civil liability, devaluation of money, compensation, personal knowledge of the judge, clandestine revolt against legitimate government, corruption, retaliation etc. have been published in the quarterly :Jurisprudence of Prophet's Progeny".

In the action assigning Ayatollah Shahroudi with the task of establishing the Institute of Encyclopedia of Islamic Juisprudence, His Eminence Ayatollah Khamenei, the Leader has addressed Ayatollah Shahroudi as follows.

In View of your qualifications as an outstanding academic figure with a high standing in Islamic jurisprudence and related disciplines, I assign you with the task of establishing the Institute of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Jurisprudence.

Along with his academic career, Ayatollah Shahroudi has also undertaken crucial responsibilities, which have been properly fulfilled by His Eminence. some of his positions both before and after taking office as head of the judiciary are:

Jurist member of th Counciul of Guardians.

Member of Assembly of Experts.

Member of Supreme Management Council of Qum School of Theology.

Vice-Chairman of Association of Instructors of Qum School of Theology.

The most important responsibility undertaken by Ayatollah Shahroudi during the recent years is establishment of the Institute of the Encyclopedia of the Islamic Jurisprudence, based on the teachings of the Prophet's progeny, which is presided by him, by the charter of the Leader, His Eminence Ayatollah Khamenei.

Thanks to the efforts of Ayatollah Hashemi Shahroudi, this institute has managed to publish numerous volumes of valuable works on the Islamic jurisprudence and theology.

Along with publication of books, this institute publishes two quarterlies: "Jurisprudence of the Prophet's Progeny" in Persian and "Al-Menhaj" in Arabic, the latter being published by the institute's branch in Lebanon.

The areas covered by this quarterlies include studies on the latest Shiite viewpoints of jurisprudence addressing the contemporary issues.



While serving at the Supreme Management Council of Qum School of Theology and the Association of Instructors of Qum School of Theology, His Eminence has presented new plans towards enhancing the efficiency of the said school. He has also put forth useful proposals towards enhancing the efficiency of the Council of Guardians. After taking office as Head of the Judiciary, he launched the project known as "judicial development". The society and the judicial system have greatly benefited from the endeavours of Ayatololah Shahroudi in the capacity of the Head of the judiciary. The idea of "judicial development", as viewed by Ayatollah Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, is the corner stone for reformation of the judicial system towards achieving a developed judicial system based on the teachings and doctrines of Islam."

Biography of Ali Younesi, Minister of Intelligence

: "Biography of Ali Younesi, Minister of Intelligence

Name and Surname: Ali Younesi

Date of Birth: 1955

Place of Birth: Nahavand

Marital Status: Married

Education: Completed theological studies under tutelage of grand Aayatollahs such as Ayatollah Momen, Ayatollah Gilani, Ayatollah Saneie, Ayatollah Ahmad Mianji, Ayatollah Janati and a number of others, and philosophy under tutelage of Ayatollah Mesbah Yazdi, Ayatollah Hassan-zadeh Amoli, Ayatollah Javadi Amoli and interpretation with Ayatollah Mesbah Yazdi and Ayatollah Marefat.

In 1974, after successfully passing the three-stage exams of theological studies, he started the Fiqh with grand Ayatollahs Golpaygani, Meshgini, Haj Mirza Hashem Amoli, Vahid Khorasani and Yousef Saneie and received certificate of theological studies from the grand Ayatollah Meshgini and Ayatollah Momen in 1980. His Ijtihad was endorsed by the grand Ayatollah Saneie and he grand Ayatollah Gilani.

Alongside his Fiqh and theological studies, Younesi attended university, receiving BA in Education from the Faculty of Judiciary and Educational Sciences and an MA in political science with focus on national security in 1997


Record of Political Activism:

Hojatoleslam Younesi was attracted to political activities while living in his hometown of Nahavand and after the late Imam Khomeini was sent to exile he became actively involved in organizing revolutionary speeches of Ayatollah Qodoosi and martyr Heidari. He stepped up his anti-Shah activities after learning about Abouzar group and joining it. After the arrest of the key members of the group by SAVAK, the secret police of the Shah, he reorganized the group with the help of other activists.

After moving to the city of Qom, he became familiar with revolutionary cells and groups of the theological centers and in 1975 in order to evade arrest by SAVAK agents, he left Iran and moved to guerilla camps of Palestine and Lebanon and learned guerilla warfare from martyr Montazeri.

After returning to Iran, once again he was under pursuit of SAVAK agents for having resumed his political activities, distributing tracts, recruiting sympathizers and activists and delivering revolutionary speeches, especially the speech he delivered in the city of Khomein at the invitation of Ayatollah Pasandideh, to mark the 40th day of the passing away of Haj Mostafa Khomeini, son of the late Imam Khomeini. During the anti-Shah uprising, he was arrested in Nahavand in 1978 and was transferred to SAVAK headquarters of the city of Hamedan, after being severely tortured.


Executive and Management Record:

His responsibilities and posts after the victory of the 1979 Islamic revolution are as follows:

- Appointed Religious Judge of the 7-member Land Ceding Council of the city of Qom, with a decree by ayatollah Meshgini, 1980

- Appointed as Head of the Revolutionary Court of Tehran by the late Ayatollah Dr. Beheshti, appointed Religious Judge of Military Revolutionary Tribunals of the army by the High Judiciary Council, 1984

- Head of the Politico-Ideological Bureau of Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, while holding the portfolio of the Religious Judge of the Military Revolutionary Tribunals, 1982

- Collaboration with Hojatoleslam Rey-shahri in establishing the Information Ministry

- Active role and participation in designing and forming the Judiciary Organization of the Armed Forces of the country, 1986

- Appointed representative of the leadership to oversee the reconstruction of the Intelligence Unit of the army upon the order of Imam Khomeini and a decree by the president of the time, 1986

- Representative of the Acting Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces at the Intelligence Unit of the army, 1987

- Appointed Religious Judge of the Judicial Affairs of the Families of Martyrs by the leader, 1990

- Head of the Judiciary Organization of the armed forces of the country (his last post), and many other side missions and key responsibilities.
"

: "Biography of Ali Younesi, Minister of Intelligence

Name and Surname: Ali Younesi

Date of Birth: 1955

Place of Birth: Nahavand

Marital Status: Married

Education: Completed theological studies under tutelage of grand Aayatollahs such as Ayatollah Momen, Ayatollah Gilani, Ayatollah Saneie, Ayatollah Ahmad Mianji, Ayatollah Janati and a number of others, and philosophy under tutelage of Ayatollah Mesbah Yazdi, Ayatollah Hassan-zadeh Amoli, Ayatollah Javadi Amoli and interpretation with Ayatollah Mesbah Yazdi and Ayatollah Marefat.

In 1974, after successfully passing the three-stage exams of theological studies, he started the Fiqh with grand Ayatollahs Golpaygani, Meshgini, Haj Mirza Hashem Amoli, Vahid Khorasani and Yousef Saneie and received certificate of theological studies from the grand Ayatollah Meshgini and Ayatollah Momen in 1980. His Ijtihad was endorsed by the grand Ayatollah Saneie and he grand Ayatollah Gilani.

Alongside his Fiqh and theological studies, Younesi attended university, receiving BA in Education from the Faculty of Judiciary and Educational Sciences and an MA in political science with focus on national security in 1997


Record of Political Activism:

Hojatoleslam Younesi was attracted to political activities while living in his hometown of Nahavand and after the late Imam Khomeini was sent to exile he became actively involved in organizing revolutionary speeches of Ayatollah Qodoosi and martyr Heidari. He stepped up his anti-Shah activities after learning about Abouzar group and joining it. After the arrest of the key members of the group by SAVAK, the secret police of the Shah, he reorganized the group with the help of other activists.

After moving to the city of Qom, he became familiar with revolutionary cells and groups of the theological centers and in 1975 in order to evade arrest by SAVAK agents, he left Iran and moved to guerilla camps of Palestine and Lebanon and learned guerilla warfare from martyr Montazeri.

After returning to Iran, once again he was under pursuit of SAVAK agents for having resumed his political activities, distributing tracts, recruiting sympathizers and activists and delivering revolutionary speeches, especially the speech he delivered in the city of Khomein at the invitation of Ayatollah Pasandideh, to mark the 40th day of the passing away of Haj Mostafa Khomeini, son of the late Imam Khomeini. During the anti-Shah uprising, he was arrested in Nahavand in 1978 and was transferred to SAVAK headquarters of the city of Hamedan, after being severely tortured.


Executive and Management Record:

His responsibilities and posts after the victory of the 1979 Islamic revolution are as follows:

- Appointed Religious Judge of the 7-member Land Ceding Council of the city of Qom, with a decree by ayatollah Meshgini, 1980

- Appointed as Head of the Revolutionary Court of Tehran by the late Ayatollah Dr. Beheshti, appointed Religious Judge of Military Revolutionary Tribunals of the army by the High Judiciary Council, 1984

- Head of the Politico-Ideological Bureau of Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, while holding the portfolio of the Religious Judge of the Military Revolutionary Tribunals, 1982

- Collaboration with Hojatoleslam Rey-shahri in establishing the Information Ministry

- Active role and participation in designing and forming the Judiciary Organization of the Armed Forces of the country, 1986

- Appointed representative of the leadership to oversee the reconstruction of the Intelligence Unit of the army upon the order of Imam Khomeini and a decree by the president of the time, 1986

- Representative of the Acting Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces at the Intelligence Unit of the army, 1987

- Appointed Religious Judge of the Judicial Affairs of the Families of Martyrs by the leader, 1990

- Head of the Judiciary Organization of the armed forces of the country (his last post), and many other side missions and key responsibilities.
"

Hojatoleslam Heidar Moslehi Defends Basij

RFE/RL Iran Report: "KHORRAMABAD: ONE MORE REPORT COMING. So far, 150 people have been arrested in connection with the late-August clashes in Khorramabad between a reformist student group, hardline vigilantes, and security forces, the Luristan Province Law Enforcement Forces chief said at the beginning of October. But questions, accusations, and counter-accusations persist, although two investigatory bodies have released their findings already. The most recent report -- by the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) -- has been criticized by hardliners, the earlier state inspectorate's report was criticized by reformists and the SNSC, and a parliamentary report is due in mid-October. And all the contradictory findings by official bodies are undermining public confidence and increasing the masses' cynicism.

The state inspectorate (National Control and Inspection Organization) findings, which were released in mid-September, immediately came under fire from reformist observers (see "RFE/RL Iran Report," 18 September 2000). Judiciary chief Ayatollah Mahmud Hashemi-Shahrudi, under whom the inspectorate operates, rejected the complaints and said the report was "valid and well-documented," IRNA reported on 17 September. The next day, he demanded the punishment of those involved in the riots and who destroyed property.

The SNSC rejected the inspectorate's investigation and its mid-September report. The SNSC presented its own findings on 27 September, following an investigation by officials from the Interior Ministry, the Intelligence and Security Ministry, the Law Enforcement Forces, the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps, and the Basij Mobilization Forces.

According to IRNA, the report said that the gathering of the Office for Strengthening Unity (OSU, or Daftar-i Tahkim-i Vahdat, the largest pro-Khatami student organization) was licensed but that the place and time were "inappropriate." The report condemned the provincial security council for its failure to plan for contingencies, security officials were condemned for poor crisis management, and the report recommended that IRGC and Basij personnel who got involved in the unrest should face legal action. Speakers at the student gathering were condemned for a "lack of due consideration of the religious and Islamic beliefs of the Iranian nation." State broadcasting also reported on the SNSC's findings, which said that Interior Minister Mostafa Tajzadeh's reference to hardline protesters at Khorramabad airport as "fascists" was conveyed to the protesters themselves by provocateurs. There also were references to a "third current" which provoked some of the unrest.

The SNSC report was criticized by the Supreme Leader's representative to the Basij, Hojatoleslam Heidar Moslehi, in a letter that was reprinted in the 2 October "Jomhuri-yi Islami." He denied some of the allegations about the Basij and the IRGC and asked "what could possibly be the purpose of that report other than tarnishing the image of the [IRGC] and the Basij?" The letter went on to suggest that "certain [unnamed] individuals" are trying to undermine confidence in "revolutionary institutions." IRGC and Basij representatives to the SNSC's investigatory committee pointed out inconsistencies between the committee's findings and the report's final conclusions. In a letter to the Interior Minister that was reproduced in the 3 October "Entekhab," second brigadier-generals Qasem Qajavand and Ahmad Ruzbani said the content and phraseology of the report was changed 34 times, so they "object[ed] to the contents of the published document."

Habibollah Asgarowladi-Mosalman of the hardline Islamic Coalition Association added, in the 4 October "Resalat," that the OSU and the pro-Khatami Islamic Iran Participation Party must answer for what happened in Khorramabad. Shiraz parliamentarian Ahmad Shirzad told the 1 October "Iran" that after seeing both earlier reports it was clear that some subjects had been avoided by the investigators. The inspectorate's report was hastily prepared he added, and state broadcasting's coverage of the SNSC report was "totally different from the actual text."

A parliamentary report on Khorramabad is due in mid-October. Khorramabad reporter Abbas Darvand told RFE/RL's Persian Service that the parliamentary investigation found that local Friday prayer leader Hojatoleslam Seyyed Kazem Husseini-Mianji, aided by local broadcast media, stirred up trouble. But as Shushtar representative Mohammad Ali Sheikh told "Iran," "there is no single point of reference which enjoys public acceptability." (Bill Samii)"